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绿维文旅:生态宜居乡村建设指南

2019-01-23 绿维文旅 标签:

 广大乡村地区,虽然保有大量的森林、水系和农田,但环境问题依然严重,脏、乱、差现象普遍,很多地方污水横流、垃圾围村,与早期整洁卫生、自然朴实的面貌相去甚远。乡村景观加速破碎化,生物多样性减少,生态系统功能不断退化。

JINXINGXIANGCUNHUANJINGZHENGZHINENGGAISHANHETIGAONONGMINDESHENGHUOPINZHI,BAOHUZIRANHUANJING,SHIXIANXIANGCUNSHENGTAIZHENXING。

一、乡村生态环境整治的要求与内容

手机买彩票XIANGCUNSHENGTAIXINGHUANJINGZHENGZHICUOSHIYINGDANGYUXIANGCUNSHENGTAIGUOCHENGXIANGSHIYING,YIZUISHAODERENGONGGANYUDUIXIANGCUNHUANJINGWENTIJINXINGYOUXIAOKONGZHIYUCHIXUGAISHAN。ZHEIXIECUOSHINENGGOUBAOHUSHENGTAIJIEGOUHESHENGTAIGUOCHENGDEWANZHENGXING,WEICHIXIANGCUNSHENGWUDEDUOYANGXING,CUJINNENGLIANGLIU、WUZHILIUDEXUNHUAN,JIANSHAOHUANJINGWURAN,GAISHANNONGMINDESHENGCHAN、SHENGHUOHUANJING。

  • 生态性的乡村环境整治措施首先体现在生态保护,保护乡村的森林、水系、农田等要素形成的生态化、田园化格局,保护丰富的物种和多样的生物生存环境。美丽乡村建设倡导的“不推山、不砍树、不填塘”就是对乡村生态格局的保护。
  • 其二顺应自然,尊重自然,发挥自然的能动性。环境改善措施要考虑在自然状态下可能对乡村环境产生的影响,评估涉及到的动植物、人、气候等因素,遵从自然规律,以自然过程为依据,利用自然的力量,发挥自然做功。
  • 其三减少向自然界排放污染物、有毒物质,自然界对各种污染物的消解能力是有一定的限度。垃圾乱扔和污水随意排放已经是乡村环境治理的突出问题,控制污染源头和减少污染排放就是对乡村环境最好的保护。
  • 其四节约资源,利用乡土材料进行环境改造。乡土材料具有地域适宜性,具备低碳、环保、可再生、经济等多种优势,能更好的服务乡村建设。

根据国家《美丽乡村建设指南》,其生态环境部分从环境质量达标、污染防治、生态保护与治理、村容整治四大方面提出要求。概括来说就是规定了乡村水、土、气等要素的环境质量指标,对农业、工业、生活污染进行防治,开展水体、土壤、植被的生态保护,以及村容维护、环境绿化。根据指南,乡村环境整治要注重乡村自然与人工生态系统保护,突出污染防治,改善人居环境,改变生产、生活方式,最终使各项环境指标达到国家标准。

二、乡村的山水林田生态保护与景观优化

山林生态维护首先是保护好现有森林资源,尤其是村庄手机买彩票水源涵养林、村内风景林、村片林等,保护好其自然状态,减少人工干预。对村子聚居区外围一重山范围能绿则绿,根据各地林木资源状况,适当增加一些开花或叶色具有季相变化的树种,丰富不同季节山林景观。

手机买彩票XIANGCUNSHUIXIBAOKUOHE、HU、TANG、XI、QUDENGDUOZHONGXINGSHI。HEANYICAIYONGZIRANHUANPO,WEICHIHEANSHENGTAIGOUZAO,ANXIANXINGTAIZUNCONGQIZIRANZHUANGTAI,BUZUOCAIWANQUZHIDEGAIZAO,CHONGFENFAHUIHELIUYULUDIDEWUZHIJIAOHUAN,XINGCHENGSHIYIDEXIAOQIHOU。BOANJINLIANGBIMIANSHIYONGGANGJINHUNNINGTUDANGQIANG,SHIYONGGANGJINHUNNINGTUDANGQIANGBUYIGUOGAO,KECAIYONGFENJISHEZHIDEFANGSHIBIMIANGUOGAODEDANJIDANGQIANG。

NONGTIANSHIRENGONGJINGYINGDESHENGTAIXITONG,JUYOUDUOYANGDEXINGTAI,TASHIQIANBAINIANLAODONGYUZIRANMOHEDECHENGGUO,SHIRENLEIDUIZIRANDESHIYINGXINGLIYONG,NONGTIANDIXINGDISHIHEXINGTAIGEJUBUKESUIYIGAIBIAN。XIANDAIDEGENGZUOFANGSHIDAITICHUANTONGRENGONGLAOZUOHUIYINGXIANGDAONONGTIANGEJU,NONGTIANDEGAIZAOYAOJIANLIZAIBUPOHUAIDIXINGDISHI、BUPOHUAIZHENGTINONGYESHENGCHANXITONGSHANGDEHELIHUAGAIZAO。

受风灾侵害的农村手机买彩票地区需要建设农田林网,通常沿道路或河渠种植林带,与灾害风向垂直,线形林带与斑块状片林结合,形成纵横交错的网络。防风林物种一般选择本地适生、根系发达、抗风折、耐贫瘠、病虫害少的树种,最好能结果或可作为经济林木。也可以考虑栽植一些能吸引鸟类、昆虫等有益农业生产的物种,实现农田病虫害的生物防治。

三、乡村生活生产废弃物处理

1、污水生态处理

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手机买彩票TONGGUOXIUJIANFANGSHEZHOUWEIPAISHUIGOUHUIJIRICHANGSHENGHUOHUISHUI,JINGYOUSHENGTAIQU、SHENGTAITANGZHUBUSHIXIANWURANWUJIANGJIE,CHUBUCHULIDEHUISHUIYEKEYIZHIJIEYONGYUNONGTIANSHIFEI。SHAOLIANGDEHEISHUITONGGUOFENWUFENLIUJIZHONGJINXINGZAICHULI。GUONEIWUHAIHUAWEISHENGCESUOSUOCAIYONGDESANGEHUAFENCHICESUO、SHUANGWENGLOUDOUSHICESUO、SANLIANTONGZHAOQISHICESUOJUNSHIHEFENSANDENONGHU,FENWUTONGGUOSHENGWUFAJIAO,BIANFEIWEIFEI,HAIFEIYUTIAN,SHIXIANWUZHIZAILIYONG。CUNNEIYIXIEDIWADI、FEIQIGENGDITONGGUOGAIZAOZHONGZHISHUISHENGZHIWU,XINGCHENGRENGONGSHIDI,ZHEIXIERENGONGSHIDIZAIJINGHUAWUSHUIDETONGSHI,ZENGJIASHENGWUDUOYANGXING,MEIHUAHUANJING,DIAOJIEQIHOU。

2、垃圾收集与无害化处理

LAJIFENJIANSHISHIXIANLAJIJIANLIANGHUADEYOUXIAOCUOSHI。XIANGCUNDIQU,RENMENSHENGHUOCHANSHENGDEDABUFENLAJISHUYUKEXUNHUANLIYONGWUZHI。KEANZHAOZHEJIANGJINHUASHILAJIFENJIANJINGYAN,LAJIXIANYOUNONGHUFENWEIHUILANDEHEBUHUILANDELIANGLEI,ZAIYOUCUNBAOJIEYUANZAIGEHUFENLEIDEJICHUSHANG,JINXINGERCIFENLEI,BANENGHUISHOULIYONGDELINSHICUNFANGDENGDAISHICHANGHUISHOU,HUILANDEZHIJIETOURUDUIFEIJIANDUIFEI。

3、废弃物的艺术创作

NONGZUOWUJIEGANSHINONGYESHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDEZUIDALIANGFEIQIWU,JIEJUEZHEIYIWENTIGENBENHAIZAIYUTUOZHANNONGZUOWUJIEGANDEZONGHELIYONGTUJING,NONGZUOWUJIEGANKEYIJIAGONGCHENGQINCHUSILIAO、GONGYEYUANCAILIAOYIJISHENGCHANZHAOQI。NANFANGDIQUTUIGUANGDERENCHU—ZHAOQI—GUOSHUMOSHIHEBEIFANGTUIGUANGDERENCHU—ZHAOQI—SHUCAI—DAPENGMOSHIDOUSHILIYONGNONGZUOWU。

手机买彩票JIEGANHEQITAYOUJILAJIDEHAOFANGSHI。DANGQIANTICHANGQINCHUQUANYANGYEXUYAOLIYONGYUMIJIEGAN、MAIGAN、DAOCAODENGNONGZUOWUCANTIZUOWEIDIANCENG,XISHOUWUSHUI,BAOCHIQUANSHEGANZAO、WEISHENG。DIANCENGJINGGUODUIFEICHULIHOUHAIFEIYUTIAN,SHIXIANWUZHIXUNHUAN。NONGZUOWUCANTIHAIKEYIYONGLAIZHIZUOSHENGHUOYONGJUHEGONGYIPIN,BIRULIYONGDAOCAO、MAIGAN、YUMIBAOPIZHIZUOCAOMAO、CAODIAN、BIANZHIWUDENG。

手机买彩票XIANGTUCAILIAOSHIZAIXIANGCUNHUANJINGXIAXINGCHENGHEZHIZUODE,JINGYOUQIANRENJINGYANJILEIHESHIJIANHUODELIANGHAOYUNYONG。XIANGTUCAILIAOJUYOUHUANJINGSHIYIXING,NENGGOUHEZHOUWEISHENGJINGXIEDIAO,YESHITIXIANDIFANGTESEDEZHUYAONEIRONG。SHENGTU、KUAISHI、LUANSHI、SUISHIZI、FANGZHUAN、HUIWADENGXIANGTUJIANZHUCAILIAOHUOQURONGYI,MUCAI、ZHUZIJUYOUKEZAISHENGXING。XIANGCUNLVHUACAILIAOYIXUANYONGJIXIANGFENMING、XIANGTUQIXINONGYUDESHISHENGHUAMUHEZUOWU,JIFANGBIANYANGHU,YOUNENGCHANSHENGJINGJIXIAOYI。

XIANGCUNFEIQINONGJUHESHENGHUOYONGJURUDULUNCHE、SHIMO、SHUICHE、TIELI、FENGCHE、DOULI、SUOYI、MUTONG、ACAIGANGDENGFANYINGLEZAOQIDENONGGENGWENMING,KEYIJIFADANGDAIRENDUIJIUSHIDEHUIYI,YINQIQINGSHAONIANDEHAOQIHEGUANSHANGXINGQU。JIANGZHEIXIEWUPINBAIFANGZAICUNNEIHUOYUANLUOMOUXIESHIJIAOLIANGHAODEWEIZHI,NENGCHONGFENZHANSHIXIANGCUNTESE。YIXIEPOSUNDESHENGHUOQIJUYEKEZAIZHIHUAMU,ZHUANGSHIQIANGGENHUOLUBIAN。

四、乡村生活空间景观化

1、道路的生态建设

乡村道路要在保护道路历史形态和走向、维护村庄格局的基础上分类建设。村主干道满足村内车辆的对外交通,可以采用水泥路或沥青路。村次干道满足农用车、小型农业机械通过,考虑石材类、方砖、无机结合料路面。宅间路、入户路及巷道连接了各家各户,仅供行人与非机动车通过,路面宽度窄,选择一些石板、卵石、废旧砖、砂石等生态材料,利于雨水下渗,补充地下水。

CUNNEILINJINNONGHUDEDAOLU,ANZHAOGEJIAFENDUANFUZEGUANLIYUANZE,GULICUNMINZAILUCEZHONGZHISHUCAI、GUOSHU,BAOCHIDAOLULIANGCEGANJING、ZHENGJIE,JIYOULIYUDAOLUWEIHU,YENENGJINONGHUDAILAISHOUYI。

2、庭院绿化

手机买彩票XIANGCUNTINGYUANCUNZAIWEIQIANGGUOGAO、YUANNEIDIMIANYINGHUAGUODUHUOWEIJIAPUZHUANG、LVHUABUZUDENGWENTI。CAIYONGAIYUANQIANGHUOZHALAN+CAIDIZUOWEIHUDEXIANGCUNTINGYUANGENGNENGFANYINGXIANGCUNDEPOSHIMEI。TINGYUANDIMIANKECAIYONGFANGZHUAN、KUAISHIJINXINGPUSHE,PUSHEFANWEIYIFANGBIANYUTIANXINGZOUHERICHANGSHENGCHAN、SHENGHUOWEIYI。TINGYUANLVHUAFANGSHIYOUZHONGZHIDAQIAOMU、HUAGUOMU、HUAGUANMU、PENZAIDENGDUOZHONGFANGSHI。GENJUGEJIATINGYUANDAXIAO,DAQIAOMUZHONGZHIKEXUANYONGXINGTAIYOUMEI、JIXIANGHUOFANGXIANGLEIZHIWU,YIBANKEZAITINGYUANZAIZHILIANGSANKE。

3、公共生活空间美化

CUNZHUANGGONGGONGHUODONGKONGJIANYISHEZHIZAIRENMENHUODONGPINFANDECHANGSUO,KAOJINCUNKOUHUOCUNZHONGXIN,YIBANYUCUNWEIHUI、CUNWENHUAHUODONGZHONGXINXIANGJIEHE,CHONGFENLIYONGXIANCUNCITANG、MIAOYUHEGUSHUMINGMUDENGCHUXINGCHENGDEKAIKUOKONGJIAN,YEKEYIGENJUZIRANTIAOJIANXUANZESHUITANG、HELIUZHOUBIANHUOLINDIDENGXIUXIANHAOQUCHU。CUNKOUYAOXINGCHENGCUNZHUANGBIAOZHI,KEZAIZHINENGCHENGZHANGBAINIANDEDASHU,RUXIANGZHANG、YINXINGDENG,DAIBIAOCUNZHUANGYOUJIUDESUIYUE。JIEYONGZHOUBIANNONGTIAN、SHUITI、SHANLINJINGGUAN,BUZHILUTIANSHIZHUOYIHUOXIAOXINGXIUXILANGJIA,FANGBIANLURENXIUXIHEZHUANGSHICUNKOU。CUNNEIZHUYAOGONGGONGHUODONGCHANGSUOSHEZHIJIANSHENQICAI,PEITAOXIUXIZUOYI、BAOKANLANHEKEPUXUANCHUANLAN,ZENGSHEERTONGYOUXISHESHI,HESHIWEIZHIZHONGZHIQIAOMU,XINGCHENGSHUSHIDELINXIAKONGJIAN。ZHUYAOGONGGONGCHANGSUOYAOCHONGFENLIYONGZHOUWEILVHUA、CHANGDIZIYUAN,LIYONGXIANYOUDASHUXINGCHENGXIUXIANKONGJIAN,LIYONGZHOUWEIQIANGTICHUIZHILVHUAMIBUKONGJIANLVLIANGBUZU,CHANGSUOZHOUWEIDESHUITI、CAIDI、CHATIAN、HUAGUOMUDOUSHILIANGHAODEJINGGUANHEBEIJINGZIYUAN。ZHUZHAIZUTUANNEIBUGONGGONGKONGJIANYIMANZUJIJIAJIHUSHIWAILAOZUOHEHEYEJIANNALIANGSHIYONGWEIZHU,KAOLVJIANYICHANGDIHEJUBULVHUA。

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4、房前屋后整理与废弃地利用

FANGQIANWUHOUBIANJIAODIKEYIKAIPICHENGXIAOCAIYUAN、XIAOGUOYUANHEXIAOZHULIN。GENJUSHUCAIYESE、HUASESIJITEZHENGJINXINGDAPEIZHONGZHIDEXIAOCAIYUANXINGCHENGMEIGUANSHIYONGDEDEFANGQIANLVHUA。FANGWUZHOUBIANZHONGZHIGUOSHUHEZHULINJIANJUJINGJIJIAZHIHESHENGTAIXIAOYI,YIXIEKAIZHANXIANGCUNLVYOUDECUNZHUANG,YOUKEDOUAIXUANZEFANGWUZHOUWEISHENGTAIHUANJINGLIANGHAODENONGHUZUOWEICANYINHEZHUSUDEMUDEDI。

村落内部危旧房拆除后存留的宅基地,在当前无法确定用途时,可以作为临时菜地加以利用,避免荒废期间杂草丛生。一些断墙残壁,如暂时无拆除必要,留作涂鸦墙,或配置一些攀援的藤本瓜果、蔬菜,让它依然有生命。充分利用闲置地、不宜建设地补充村庄绿化,实现村在林中。


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