手机买彩票

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林峰:全域旅游PPP模式研究

2019-09-03 绿维文旅 标签:全域旅游

全域旅游是靠资源、业态、产品、基础设施和公共服务设施支撑起来的目的地综合发展体系,其开发需要海量的资金支持。PPP模式的运用,是在全域旅游建设中政府充分发挥引领作用、企业充分发挥市场敏感度与专业度的重要渠道,有助于破解地方政府资金困局,解决长期以来制约旅游行业转型升级的融资建设问题与经营管理问题。

绿维文旅董事长林峰博士从全域旅游的概念特征及开发理念出发,解读PPP运作在全域旅游开发中的优势,并对全域旅游PPP的开发模式及项目开发类型进行了详细的阐释。

JINGJIXINCHANGTAIBEIJINGXIA,XUYAOTONGGUOFAZHANQUANYULVYOULAICUJINLVYOUYEDEZHUANXINGSHENGJI。QUANYULVYOUSHIKAOZIYUAN、YETAI、CHANPIN、JICHUSHESHIHEGONGGONGFUWUSHESHIZHICHENGQILAIDEMUDEDIZONGHEFAZHANTIXI,QIKAIFAXUYAOHAILIANGDEZIJINZHICHI,PPPMOSHIZHENGSHITONGGUOGEJIZHENGFUDEZHUDAOHETONGCHOU,GAOXIAOPEIZHIGELEISHICHANGZIYUAN,FAHUIQIYETOUZI、JINGYINGHEFUWUDEYOUSHI,CONGERPOJIEDIFANGZHENGFUJIANSHEZIJINKUNJU,XINGCHENGZHENGFUYUSHEHUIZIBENLIANDONG、SHEHUIDUOCENGCIQUANFANGWEIGONGJIANGONGXIANGDEGEJU。

YI、QUANYULVYOUDEGAINIANTEZHENGJIKAIFALINIAN

(一)全域旅游的概念特征

根据国家官方定义,全域旅游是指在一定的行政区域内,以旅游业为优势主导产业,实现区域资源有机整合、产业深度融合发展和全社会共同参与,通过旅游业带动乃至于统领经济社会全面发展的一种新的区域旅游发展理念和模式。

CONGGAINIANZHONGKEYIKANCHU,QUANYULVYOUSHIYIZHONGZONGHEFAZHANDELINIAN,SHITUPOCHUANTONGDEJINGDIANLVYOUMOSHI,JIEJUERUHEYUNYONGLVYOUCHANYEGONGJU,TUIDONGSHEHUIFAZHANDADAOGENGGAOCENGCIDEZHONGYAOTUISHOU。

(二)全域旅游的开发理念

1、以“旅游+”为核心理念

“旅游 +”是实现全域旅游的最根本措施,也是推动区域经济转型升级的新引擎。其核心在于通过旅游把人有效聚集到目的地,通过与农业、工业、文化、教育、养生养老手机买彩票等的高度融合与创新转化为消费项目,进而有效带动和整合多个产业发展。

2、全域旅游开发的“新四观”

在全域旅游的视角下,旅游目的地的开发要树立新的资源观、市场观、要素观和发展观,促进全域资源的共建共享、结构化体系化的市场开拓、旅游全要素的多元审视和综合开发手机买彩票、全产业链的整体发展。(扩展阅读:中国旅游日 | 自主旅游时代的全域旅游“新四观”)

3、全域旅游开发的“因地制宜”思维

手机买彩票DUIBUTONGQUWEI、BUTONGXIANTIANZIYUAN、BUTONGFAZHANJIEDUANDECHENGSHI,QUANYULVYOUJIANSHEDEGONGZUOZHONGDIAN、FANGFASILU、SHIXIANZHOUQI、NANYICHENGDUDOUYOUSUOBUTONG。YINCI,ZUOQUANYULVYOUYINGLIZUDIFANGLVYOUFAZHANTIAOJIANHEFAZHANJIEDUAN,ZHEYANYUSHICHANGYAOSUDEPEIZHI,YOUDEFANGSHI,LILUOJI,ZHAOZHUASHOU, DAMUBIAO。

手机买彩票SHOUXIAN,QUANYULVYOUDEKAIFABIXULIZUYUZISHENTEDIAN,CONGSHICHANGXUQIUCHUFA,KAIFAXIANGYINGDEHEXINLVYOUCHANPIN。

手机买彩票QICI,QUANYULVYOUYINGGAIZAISHIHELVYOUKAIFADEQUYUNEI,LIZUDIYUTESE,CHONGFENLIYONG“LVYOU+”DESHOUDUAN,SHIXIANYOUZHENDUIXINGDECHANPINCHUANGXIN。

ER、PPPYUNZUOZAIQUANYULVYOUKAIFAZHONGDEYOUSHI

全域旅游PPP运作的政策支持

截至目前,国家全域旅游示范区仍停留在创建手机买彩票阶段,相关国家部委尚未公布出已通过验收、获得正式命名的全域旅游示范区。可以看出,全域旅游的开发是一个庞大的系统过程,需要在国家政策的指引和市场需求的导向下,形成政府统筹引领、社会共同参与的工作机制,结合在地现状实际和未来的发展要求,探索出因地制宜的发展模式和循序渐进的提升路径。

文化和旅游部、财政部于2018年4月发布《关于在旅游领域推广政府和社会资本合作模式的指导意见》,意见中明确提出了鼓励推广政府和社会资本合作(PPP)模式改善旅游公共服务供给,要求以全域旅游示范区为导向,逐步加强旅游基础设施建设,持续提升旅游公共服务供给水平,对一定区域内的厕所、咨询服务体系、旅游引导标识系统、旅游资源保护等与酒店、景区等经营性旅游资源进行整合开发建设。

LIANGBUWEIFABUDE《YIJIAN》,SHIYIGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGEWEIZHUXIAN、JINKOURENMINRIYIZENGZHANGDELVYOUMEIHAOSHENGHUOXUYAOHEBUPINGHENGBUCHONGFENDELVYOUYEFAZHANZHIJIANDEMAODUN、YIYOUZHILVYOUFAZHANWEIMUBIAODEGAOWEIZHANLVEMOUHUA,TONGGUOTUIJINLVYOUJINGQU、LVYOUCHANPIN、LVYOUSHESHIDENGXIANGGUANJIANSHEYAOSUKAIFAZHONGDEHUNHEJINGJIMOSHI,NENGGOUZAIGAISHANDIFANGZHENGFUZIJINDUANQUEXIANZHUANGDETONGSHI,YOUHUASHEHUIZIBENCANYUQUANYULVYOUKAIFADEHUANJINGHEQUDAO,JIANGYOULIYUKUODALVYOUGONGJI、TISHENGLVYOUZHILIANG,FAHUIQUANYULVYOUZAIMEILIZHONGGUO、XINGFUZHONGGUOJIANSHEZHONGDEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。

全域旅游发展理念与PPP的藕合性

QUANYULVYOUSHIJIAOXIAXINGCHENGDEXINXINGMUDEDI,SHIYIGELVYOUXIANGGUANYAOSUPEIZHIWANBEIHEQUANMIANMANZUYOUKETIYANXUQIUDEZONGHEXING、KAIFANGSHILVYOUMUDEDI。LVYOUCHANYEDEMEIHAOQIANJINGXIYINZHESHEHUIZIBEN,TONGSHIYOUJIXUTUPOCHUANTONGDERONGZIPINGJING,ZAIZHEIYIDABEIJINGXIA,QUANYULVYOUGONGYIXINGYUSHANGYEXINGDESHUANGZHONGXINGZHI,JUBEIJIELI PPP MOSHIDETIANRANJIYIN。

手机买彩票PPPMOSHIJISHIRONGZIGAINIAN,GENGSHIQUANYULVYOUXIANGMUYUNYINGGUANLIGAINIAN。PPPMOSHIDEYUNYONG,YOUZHUYUJIEJUEZHANGQIYILAIZHIYUELVYOUXINGYEFAZHANDERONGZIJIANSHEWENTIYUJINGYINGGUANLIWENTI,SHIZAIQUANYULVYOUJIANSHEZHONGZHENGFUCHONGFENFAHUIYINLINGZUOYONG、QIYECHONGFENFAHUISHICHANGMINGANDUYUZHUANYEDUDEZHONGYAOQUDAO,JIANGCHENGWEIQUANYULVYOUXINCHANGTAIXIATUIDONGLVYOUCHANYESHENGJIDEDONGLIXINGZHUASHOU。

手机买彩票CAIYONG PPP MOSHI,KEYIHUIJUSHEHUIZIBENDETOUZILILIANG,WEIQUYULVYOUXIANGMUKAIFARONGZI,BINGQIETONGGUOTISHENGQUYULVYOUFUWUZHILIANGDENGRUANJIANFUWU,TIGAOMUDEDILVYOUFUWUDESHUIPING。TONGGUOGUIHUA、TOUZI、KAIFA、YUNYINGDENGYIXILIEDEZHENGHE,PPP MOSHIJIANGTUIDONGQUYULVYOUCHANYEDEZHUANXINGSHENGJI。

旅游设施建设中PPP模式的必要性

JICHUSHESHIYUGONGGONGFUWUJIANSHE,SHIDANGQIANLVYOUFAZHANNAIZHIQUYUZONGHEFAZHANDEZHONGYAOJICHUXINGGONGZUO,YOUQISHIQUANYULVYOUDEFAZHAN,YAOQIULVYOUJIAOTONGWANG、ZHIHUILVYOUWANG、GONGGONGFUWUTIXIWANGSANWANGHEYI,GOUJIANQUANYUFUGAI、QUANMIANFAZHAN、JUYOUMUDEDIJIEGOUTIXIDEQUANMIANXINGFUWUJIAGOU。

LVYOUJICHUSHESHIYUGONGGONGFUWUSHESHIDETOURONGZIMOSHIYIBANSHIZHENGFUTOUZI,YITEXUJINGYINGDEFANGSHI,XINGCHENGSANZHONGQINGKUANG:

手机买彩票YISHIWANQUANWUSHOUYIDELVYOUGONGGONGCHANPIN,QIFEIYONGYOUZHENGFUQUANECHENGDAN,RULVYOUGONGGONGJIAOTONG;

手机买彩票ERSHIYOUYIDINGSHOUYI,DANCUNZAIJUDAZIJINQUEKOUDEGONGGONGCHANPIN,TONGGUOZHENGFUMIBUQUEKOUDEFANGSHI,JINXINGTEXUJINGYING;

SANSHIWANQUANNENGGOUZIZHUJINGYINGBINGSHIXIANHUIBAODEGONGGONGCHANPIN,TONGGUOTEXUJINGYING,YANSHENGCHULVYOUCHANYELIAN,CONGERSHIXIANYINGLI,XINGCHENGKECHIXUJINGYINGJIEGOU。

QIANLIANGZHONGQINGKUANG,CUNZAI“ZHOUQIZHANG、TOURUDA、CHIXUWEIHU、HUIBAOSHOUHUINAN”DENGJIANSHENANDIANYUPINGJING,ERPPPTOURONGZIMOSHIJIANGYOUZHUYUJIEJUEZHEIYIKUNJU。JICHUSHESHIYUGONGGONGFUWUSHESHIJIANSHEYOUZHENGFUZHUDAO,YOUSHEHUIZIBENYUNYING,XINGCHENG“TUDIZHENGLI、JICHUSHESHIJIANSHE、GONGGONGSHESHIJIANSHE、WUYEXIANGMUKAIFA、TEXUJINGYINGFUWU、CHANYEFAZHANFUWU、QITAZONGHEFUWU”DEXIANGMUJIEGOU,QUANMIANTISHENGYUNYINGGUANLISHUIPING,KEFAHUIZHENGFUZHENGCEZHICHIHEQIYESHICHANGHUAYUNZUODESHUANGZHONGYOUSHI。

1、旅游交通设施——构成“道路+节点”的服务结构

在全域旅游下,旅游交通网络是空间整合非常重要的一环,是推进全域旅游建设的重要抓手。通过导入PPP模式,旅游交通设施能够突破传统的政府修路形式,修建风景道、自驾道、运动道、休闲道、文化道、赛道等特色道路,形成“大尺度的景观节点+服务节点+休闲度假点+软性活动”的核心结构。

手机买彩票CONGTOUZIHUIBAOJIAODUERYAN,LVYOUDAOLUYINGZAIFUWULINIANCHUANGXINDEQIANTIXIA,ZUNXUN“DAOLUSHIYINGJIAN,JIEDIANSHIZHONGDIAN”DEYUANZE,ZHENDUISHICHANGJINXINGJIEDIANYUFUWUMOSHIDECHANPINHUASHEJI,XINGCHENGDUJIACUN、YINGDI、FUWUZHANDIAN、YIZHAN、CANYIN,HUWAIHUODONGQUDENGDUOYANGHUADECHANPIN,GOUCHENGSHOUYIHUIBAOJIEGOU,ZUIZHONGGOUJIANLVYOUDAOLUFUWUTIXI。

2、旅游环境卫生设施——创新商业模式

LVYOUWEISHENGSHESHIFUGAIFANWEIGUANG,JINGJITOURUJIAOGAO,YINCIJIYUSHENGTAIHUAHEKEJIHUADEYOUXIAOLIYONG,TONGGUODAORUPPPMOSHIXINGCHENGSHICHANGHUADELIANSUOJINGYINGJIEGOU,SHIWEISHENGSHESHIZUIZHONGYAODETISHENGFANGXIANG。

手机买彩票MUQIANZHENGFUZHUDAO、DUOBUMENXIEZUODETOUZIYUNYINGMOSHICUNZAIZHEHOUQIYUNYINGBUJIJIDEBIDUAN,HENDUOCHENGSHIHELVYOUMUDEDIKAISHICHANGSHIPPPMOSHI,BINGTONGGUOHOUQISHICHANGHUAYUNYINGSHIXIANYINGLI。SHICHANGHUAYUNYINGZHUYAOTONGGUOGUANGGAOJIAZHI、FUJIAFUWUHEPEITAOSHANGYEDENGSANDATUJINGSHIXIAN。

3、信息化设施——智慧化应用和管理

手机买彩票JINNIANLAI,XINXIHUASHESHIDUILVYOUYEERYANZHUJIANYECHENGWEIHEXINZHICHENGHEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN。XINXIHUASHESHIDEJIANSHEZUIZHONGYAODESHIYAOYITUOYINGJIANXINGCHENGZHIHUIHUAJIANCE、JIANKONG,SHIXIANSHUJUYINGYONGHEZHIHUIGUANLI,XINGCHENGMIANXIANGYOUKEDEZHIHUIHUALVYOUFUWUHEMIANXIANGYUNYINGSHANGDEZHIHUIHUAGUANLI。

YINCI,DAORUPPPMOSHI,TONGGUOZHENGFUYUZHUANYEHUAXINXI、KEJIQIYEDELIANDONGHEZUO,NENGGOUXINGCHENGQUYULIANGHAODEZHIHUILVYOUHUANJING,JIYUDIANLI、DIANXIN、WANGLUODESHESHIJIANSHE,TONGGUOWULIANWANG、YUNJISUAN、GAOXINGNENGXINXICHULI、ZHINENGSHUJUWAJUEDENGJISHUZAILVYOUTIYAN、CHANYEFAZHAN、XINGZHENGGUANLIDENGFANGMIANDEYINGYONG,SHILVYOUWULIZIYUANHEXINXIZIYUANDEDAOGAODUXITONGHUAZHENGHEHESHENDUKAIFAJIHUO。

4、旅游公共服务中心——提升综合功能

CHUANTONGDEQISHIYEDANWEIGUANLIDELVYOUJISANZHONGXINYIJINGNANYIMANZUDAZHONGLVYOU、ZIZHULVYOUSHIDAIYOUKEDEDUOYANGHUAFUWUXUQIU,YINCI,LVYOUGONGGONGFUWUZHONGXINJIANSHEDEGUOCHENGZHONGDAORUPPPMOSHI,YOUDANYIDEZHENGFUYUNYINGZHUJIANXIANGSHICHANGHUAYUNYINGDELVYOUGONGGONGFUWUZHONGXINZHUANBIAN,JIMANZUYOUKEJISAN、MUDEDIXUANCHUAN、DAOYOUFUWU、GONGGONGGUANLIDENGGONGNENG,HAIMANZUYOUKETIYAN、SHANGYEFUWUDENGZONGHEGONGNENG,SHIJIANGUGONGGONGFUWUYULVYOUYINGLIDEYOUXIAOSHOUDUAN。

手机买彩票SAN、QUANYULVYOUPPPDEKAIFAMOSHI

SPV(TESHUMUDEGONGSI)SHIPPPXIANGMUDEJUTISHISHIZHE,YOUZHENGFUHESHEHUIZIBENLIANHEZUCHENG,ZHUYAOFUZEXIANGMURONGZI(RONGZIJINE、MUBIAO、JIEGOU)、JIANSHE、YUNYINGJIWEIHU、CAIWUGUANLIDENGQUANGUOCHENGYUNZUO。

手机买彩票ZHENGFUBUMEN(HUOZHENGFUZHIDINGJIGOU)TONGCHANGSHIZHUYAOFAQIREN,TONGGUOJIYUMOUXIETEXUJINGYINGQUANHUOYIXIEZHENGCEFUCHICUOSHILAIXIYINSHEHUIZIBENBINGCUJINXIANGMUSHUNLIJINXING。ZAIPPPMOSHIZHONGDEZHINENGZHUYAOTIXIANZAI:ZHAOTOUBIAO、TEXUJINGYINGQUANSHOUYU、BUFENZHENGFUFUFEI、ZHENGFUBUTIE、RONGZIZHICHIJIJIN(GUQUAN、ZHAIQUAN、DANBAODENGXINGSHIDEZHICHI)、ZHILIANGJIANGUAN、JIAGEJIANDUDENGFANGMIAN。

SHEHUIZIBENYESHIZHUYAOFAQIRENZHIYI,TONGZHENGFUZHIDINGJIGOUHEZUOCHENGLIPPPXIANGMUGONGSI,TOURUDEGUBENXINGCHENGGONGSIDEQUANYIZIBEN。SHEHUIZIBENKEYISHIYIJIAQIYE,YEKEYISHIDUOJIAQIYEZUCHENGDELIANHETI,ZHUYAOBAOKUOSIYINGQIYE、GUOYOUKONGGUQIYE、CANGUQIYE、HUNHESUOYOUZHIQIYE。

JINRONGJIGOUZAIPPPMOSHIZHONGZHUYAOTIGONGZIJINZHICHIHEXINYONGDANBAO,YEKEZUOWEISHEHUIZIBENCANYUTOUZI。YOUYUQUANYULVYOUXIANGMUDETOUZIGUIMODA,ZAIPPPXIANGMUDEZIJINZHONG,LAIZISHEHUIZIBENHEZHENGFUDEZHIJIETOUZISUOZHANBILITONGCHANGJIAOXIAO,DABUFENZIJINLAIZIYUJINRONGJIGOU。XIANG PPP MOSHITIGONGDAIKUANDEJINRONGJIGOUZHUYAOSHIGUOJIJINRONGJIGOU、SHANGYEYINXING、XINTUOTOUZIJIGOU。

成立 SPV 公司作为全域旅游开发主体

PPP MOSHIXIA,ZHENGFUXIASHUJIGOUHUOGONGSI、TOUZIZHUTI、JINRONGJIGOUHUOQITATOUZIRENTONGGUOZUJIANSPV(TESHUMUDESHITI),TOUZIHEYUNYINGXIANGGUANXIANGMU;ZHENGFUFUZEZHENGCEGUIHUAZHIDINGHESHISHI,SHIXIANGMUZHENGTIDIAOJIEHEJIANDUZHE(DIAOJIEXIANGMUJINRUZIBENDEYINGLIKONGJIAN,GEFANGLIYIGUANXI);SHEHUIZIBENCANYUZHETONGGUOMOUQUQIYEHELILIRUN,TIGAOGENGZHUANYEDEXIANGMUSHEJIHEHOUQIYUNYINGGUANLIFUWU,YIJIHUOQUBUFENXIANGMUYUNYINGQUAN,SHIXIANZONGHEXIAOYI;DUIJINRONGJIGOULAIJIANG,RUGUOZHISHITIGONGZIJIN(WEIXIANGMUGONGSIRONGZI)DEJIANJIECANYU,ZESHOUYILAIYUANZHUYAOSHIDAIKUANLIXI。RUGUOZUOWEISHEHUIZIBENDEZHIJIECANYU,ZEKEYUZHENGFU、SHEHUIZIBENQIANDINGSANFANGHEZUOXIEYI,ZUIZHONGXIANGSHOUXIANGMUYUNYINGSHOUYIFENCHENGHUOZHENGFUCHANGFUFEIYONG。XIANGJIANTU1。


图1 成立PPP公司作为全域旅游开发的主体

以PPP引导基金推动旅游产业升级

WEILAI,QUANYULVYOUSHESHIXIANGMUTONGGUOPPPMOSHIBAOZHUANG,ZHENGFUDEJICHUSHESHITOURUHEMINYINGDESHANGYEHUATOURUXIANGJIEHESHIDASHISUOQU。YIBANLAISHUO,ZHEIYITOURUJIANGZUNCONGERBADINGLV,JI 20% YOUZHENGFUHEGUOYOUQIYETOUZI,YINDAO 80% DEMINYINGZIBENTOUZI,BINGTONGGUORONGZIGANGGAN,TUIDONGQUYULVYOUCHANYESHENGJIKAIFA。ZHEIJIANGCHENGWEILVYOUDEYIFAZHANDEJICHU。XIANGJIANTU2。


图2 以PPP引导基金推动旅游产业升级

回报机制

CAIYONGPPPMOSHIDELVYOUXIANGMUNEIRONGCEZHONGYUHUANJINGTISHENG、JICHUSHESHIGAIZAODENG,TONGGUOTIGONGGONGGONGCHANPINJIFUWU,SHIYONGZHEFUFEILAIHUISHOUTOUZIJIHUOQUJIBENSHOUYI,HAIJIANGFEIJINGYINGXINGHEJINGYINGXINGXIANGMUZHENGTIDABAO,MANZUSHEHUIZIBENDESHOUYIPINGHENG、JIANSHAOZHENGFUFUZHAI,TISHENGDANGDIRENMINSHOURUSHUIPING。TONGSHI,TONGGUOSHIYONGZHEFUFEIHEZHENGFUKEXINGXINGQUEKOUBUTIEXIANGJIEHEDEHUIBAOJIZHI,JIANQINGXIANGMUZHENGTIFENGXIAN。KESHEZHIHELIDECHAOELIRUNFENPEIJIZHIYIJIYUNYINGJIXIAOKAOHEJIZHI。XIANGJIANTU3。


图3 PPP的回报机制

手机买彩票SI、QUANYULVYOUPPPXIANGMUKAIFALEIXING

QUANYULVYOUPPPXIANGMUFENWEISIZHONGLEIXING:ZHUANXIANGJICHUJIANSHEXIANGMU、QUYUZONGHEKAIFAXIANGMU、 DANXIANGZHONGDIANXIANGMU、TESECUNZHENXIANGMU。

旅游专项基础建设 PPP 项目

ZHUANXIANGJICHUJIANSHEXIANGMUKAIFAJUJIAOLVYOUJICHUSHESHIJIANSHE,WEIJINGQUMUDEDITIGONGLIANGHAOJIAOTONG、GONGGONGFUWUSHESHIDENG,HAIBAOKUOFUHEDANGQIANXIAOFEIXINGTAIDEGENGJUXIYINLIDEXIANGMU,RUDIKONGFEIXING、ZIJIAYINGDIDENG。ZHUANXIANGKAIFAJUYOUKUAQUYU、JIAOLISAN、GONGYIXINGDENGTEDIAN。

手机买彩票JICHUSHESHIJIANSHEHEGONGGONGFUWUTIXIJIANSHE,SHI PPP YINGYONGDESHOUXUAN,TEBIESHIHEJIEJUEJICHUSHESHITOUZIQUEKOUDA、ZHENGFUCAILIBUZUDEKUNJING,WEISHEHUIZIBENZHAODAOHELICHUKOU,CHONGFENFAHUIZHENGFUHESHEHUIZIBENDEHUBUYOUSHI。CILEIXIANGMUJUNCAIQU PPP YUNZUOMOSHI,TOUZISHANGFUZEXIANGMUNEISUOYOUJIANSHENEIRONG,HUIBAOJIZHIWEIZHENGFUFUFEI、SHIYONGZHEFUFEIYIJIQITAXIEYIXINGHUIBAO。XIANGJIANTU4。


图4 专项基础建设项目PPP运作模式

旅游区域综合开发PPP项目

QUYUZONGHEKAIFAXIANGMUSHIQUANYULVYOUKAIFADEHEXINTI,HUIJISHUGELVYOUXIANGMUYOUSHI,XINGCHENGTESEQUYUKAIFABANKUAI,ZHENGTIDAZAO,BIANYUGENGHAODEGUIHUAMUDEDI,XINGCHENGXITONGDELVYOUWENHUATIXI,MANZUYOUKEDUOZHONGTIYANXUQIU。

手机买彩票QUYUNEIBUDUOZHONGLVYOUZIYUANMIJIFENBU,JIYIXINGCHENGZONGHEYOUSHI。QUYUKAIFADEZUIZHONGMUBIAOSHIYAODADAOQUYUJINGJI、SHEHUI、WENHUAJIEGOUYUGONGNENGZHUANBIAN。QUYUKAIFAYINQITOUZIGUIMODAHEYUNZUODEFUZAERTEBIESHIYONGYUCAIYONGPPPFANGSHIJINXINGYUNZUO。XIANGJIANTU5。

图5 区域综合开发项目商业运作模式

QUYULVYOUSHIFANQUBAOKUODALIANGDEYIJITUDIKAIFA、SHANGYEJIEQUJIANSHE、GONGYIXINGGONGGONGFUWUSHESHIJIANSHEDENG,YEBAOHANJINGQUDUJIAQUKAIFA、SHANGYEJIEXIUJIANYIJIQUYUNEIZIXIANGMUZHAOSHANGYINZIHECHANYEFUWUDENG。

手机买彩票XIANGMUSHOURUYOUJIANSHELIRUNSHOURU、ZHAOSHANGYINZITICHENGSHOURUDENGXIANJINLIURU,SHIHEYITEXUJINGYING、ZHENGFUBUTIE、ZHENGFUGOUMAIFUWUDENGXINGSHIBAOZHUANGCHENG PPP XIANGMU。

旅游单项重点PPP项目

单项重点项目包括景区、度假村、文化园和森林公园等建设,侧重个性化与经营性,属于优质资源,操作内容含少量基础设施建设,主流是纯商业项目建设运营,项目中有需要完善项目区域内的景区公共设施建设等公益性工程的亦可采用 PPP 模式,纯商业性质开发的采取商业开发模式。


图6 单项重点项目商业运作模式

旅游特色村镇PPP项目

特色村镇在城镇化发展中占据着重要的地位,有重点、有特色的发展是指导小城镇建设的重要原则。特色村镇建设推动“产、城、人、文”的融合。特色村镇由于整体开发过程中涉及大量的小镇手机买彩票基础设施和公共设施建设和完善,具有大量的公益性质工程,均采取 PPP 的模式运作。详见图7。


图7 特色村镇项目商业运作模式

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做规划设计 当然找绿维

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